Many women experience menstrual pain, especially when they are in the their teens. In most cases, menstrual pain does not indicate a more serious problem, although sometimes it can be associated with endometriosis or uterine fibroids (non-cancerous tumors in the uterus).
The medical term for menstrual pain is primary dysmenorrhea.
Primary dysmenorrhea usually starts 2 - 3 years after the first period, as a woman begins to ovulate regularly. Pain usually starts a day or two before menstrual flow, and may continue through the first 2 days the period. Often, pain gets better as a woman gets older, or after she has a child.
Secondary dysmenorrhea is caused by underlying conditions, such as endometriosis and pelvic inflammatory disease.
Signs and Symptoms:
Symptoms and degree of pain vary, but may include the following:
- Abdominal cramping or dull ache that moves to lower back and legs
- Heavy menstrual flow
- Constipation or diarrhea
- Frequent urination
- Vomiting (not common)
What Causes It?:
Primary dysmenorrhea is caused by strong contractions of the uterus trigged by prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that are involved in inflammation and that stimulate pain receptors. Higher levels of prostaglandins are associated with more menstrual pain.
Secondary dysmenorrhea can be caused by:
- Endometriosis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus)
- Blood and tissue being discharged through a narrow cervix
- Uterine fibroid or ovarian cyst
- Infections of the uterus
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
- Intrauterine device (IUD)
Initial treatment is focused on relieving pain.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) -- help relieve pain. They can cause stomach upset, so taking them with food may help. Long-term use can increase the risk of stomach bleeding. NSAIDs include over-the-counter (OTC) medications such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), and naproxen (Aleve). Prescription NSAIDs are also available.
Contraceptives (birth control pills and patches) -- can help relieve pain and also may be prescribed for disorders such as endometriosis.
If menstrual pain results from pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), your doctor will prescribe antibiotics.
Complementary and Alternative Therapies
Some women find that changing their diets can help reduce the severity of cramps. Mind-body techniques (such as meditation) and exercises (such as yoga and tai chi) can also help relieve pain.
Nutrition and Supplements
- Eat foods that are rich in calcium. They include beans, almonds, and dark green leafy vegetables (such as spinach and kale).
- Eat foods that are high in antioxidants, including fruits (such as blueberries, cherries, and tomatoes), and vegetables (such as squash and bell pepper).
- Avoid refined foods, such as white breads, pastas, and sugar.
- Eat fewer red meats and more lean meats, cold-water fish, tofu (soy, if no allergy), or beans for protein.
- Use healthy cooking oils, such as olive oil or vegetable oil.
- Some women find that adding soy milk to their diet helps relieve menstrual pain.
- Eliminate trans-fatty acids, found in commercially baked goods such as cookies, crackers, cakes, French fries, onion rings, donuts, processed foods, and margarine.
- Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco.
- Drink 6 - 8 glasses of filtered water daily.
- Exercise at least 30 minutes daily, 5 days a week.
The following supplements may also help relieve menstrual pain:
- Omega-3 fatty acids, such as fish oil, about 6 g per day, to help lower inflammation. A few studies have found that women who took fish oil had less menstrual pain than those who took placebo. Omega-3 fatty acids may increase the risk of bleeding, especially for people who take blood-thinning medication. Ask your doctor before taking omega-3 fatty acids.
- Calcium citrate, 500 - 1,000 mg daily. Calcium is needed for healthy bones, and may also help reduce menstrual pain because it helps maintain muscle tone. Evidence isn' t clear, however. One study found that calcium did reduce menstrual pain, but in another study it seemed that calcium reduced premenstrual pain but did not help after a woman' s period started. Calcium citrate is the form of calcium that your body absorbs most easily.
- Vitamin D, 400 IU daily, helps your body use calcium and may reduce inflammation.
- Vitamin E, 500 IU daily, may help reduce menstrual pain. In one study, 100 young women took either 500 IU of vitamin E or placebo for 5 days (2 days before and 3 days after their periods started). Those who took vitamin E reported less pain than those who took placebo.
- Magnesium, 360 mg daily for 3 days on the day before menstruation starts. One study that used this dosage found that it reduced menstrual cramps in women who took it. A few other preliminary studies have also suggested that magnesium may help reduce menstrual pain. Too much magnesium can cause diarrhea and lower blood pressure. If you have digestive problems or heart disease, ask your doctor before taking magnesium.
Herbs are generally available as standardized dried extracts (pills, capsules, or tablets), teas, or tinctures/liquid extracts (alcohol extraction, unless otherwise noted). Mix liquid extracts with favorite beverage. Dose for teas is 1 - 2 heaping teaspoonfuls/cup water steeped for 10 - 15 minutes (roots need to be steeped longer).
No scientific studies have been done on whether these herbs can reduce menstrual pain, but some have been used traditionally for that purpose. Some researchers think these herbs may have estrogen-like effects. Women who have a history of hormone-related cancer, who are taking hormone replacement therapy, or who have a bleeding disorder or are taking blood-thinning medication should ask their doctor before taking these herbs:
- Chaste tree or chaste berry (Vitex agnus castus) standardized extract, 20 - 40 mg daily before breakfast.
- Cramp bark (Viburnum opulus), taken as a tea. Boil 2 tsp. dried bark in 1 cup water then simmer for 15 minutes; drink 3 times per day.
- Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) standardized extract, 20 - 40 mg two times a day.
- Evening primrose oil (Oenothera biennis) standardized extract, 500 - 1000 mg daily, as a source of gamma linolenic acid (GLA). Some studies -- but not all -- have found evening primrose oil to be effective at relieving symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
- Turmeric (Curcuma longa) standardized extract, 300 mg three times a day, for inflammation. Turmeric can increase the risk of bleeding, so ask your doctor before taking it.
Few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic remedies. However, a professional homeopath may recommend one or more of the following treatments for menstrual pain based on his or her knowledge and clinical experience. Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account a person's constitutional type -- your physical, emotional, and intellectual makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate remedy for a particular individual.
- Belladonna -- for acute menstrual pain that often resembles labor pains; for pain often described as sharp, throbbing pressure in the pelvis accompanied by heavy bleeding; and for pain that may extend to the back and tends to worsen with walking or moving.
- Chamomilla -- for menstrual pain with mood changes, including irritability and anger, and pain occuring after bouts of anger. The individual may have the sensation of a weight on her pelvis.
- Cimicifuga -- for pain that moves from one side of the abdomen to the other and that is worsened by movement.
- Colocynthis -- for sharp pain accompanied by anger and irritability.
- Lachesis -- for pain and pressure that extend to the back. Symptoms tend to worsen at night.
- Magnesia phos -- for cramps or sharp, shooting pains that are relieved by warmth, pressure, and bending forward.
- Nux vomica -- for cramping pains that extend to the lower back; these pains are often accompanied by nausea, chills, irritability, and a sensitivity to light, noise, and odors.
- Pulsatilla -- for menstrual pains accompanied by irritability, moodiness (including feelings of sadness), dizziness, fainting, nausea, diarrhea, back pain, and headaches; there may be more pain when there is no menstrual flow.
The following methods may help relieve pelvic pain:
- Castor oil pack. Apply oil directly to skin, cover with a clean soft cloth (for example, flannel) and plastic wrap. Place a heat source (hot water bottle or heating pad) over the pack and let sit for 30 - 60 minutes. For best results use 3 consecutive days in 1 week.
- Contrast sitz baths. Use two basins that you can comfortably sit in. Sit in hot water for 3 minutes, then in cold water for 1 minute. Repeat three times to complete one set. Do one to two sets per day, 3 - 4 days per week.
The National Institutes of Health recommend acupuncture as either a supplemental or alternative treatment for menstrual pain. In a well-designed trial involving 43 women with dysmenorrheal, women treated with acupuncture showed a dramatic reduction in both pain and the need for pain medication.
Acupuncture has become a popular treatment for menstrual pain. Acupuncturists treat people with dysmenorrhea based on an individualized assessment of the excesses and deficiencies of energy (called qi) located in various meridians. In the case of dysmenorrhea, a qi deficiency is usually detected in the liver and spleen meridians. Moxibustion (a technique in which the herb mugwort is burned over specific acupuncture points) is often added to enhance needling treatment, and qualified practitioners may also recommend herbal or dietary treatments.
Acupressure is also effective at reducing pain. A study of 216 female students found that acupressure and ibuprofen were significantly better than placebo at reducing pain.
Some people with menstrual pain may find relief with spinal manipulation (particularly in areas that supply sensory and motor impulses to the uterus and lower back).
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